Health Professionals:

Folic Acid and NTDs

  • Arth A, Tinker S, Moore C, et al. Supplement use and other characteristics among pregnant women with a previous pregnancy affected by a neural tube defect – United States, 1997-2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015; 64(01): 6-9.

  • Cabrera RM, Hill DS, Etheredge AJ, Finnell RH. Investigations into the Etiology of Neural Tube Defects. Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today). 2004; 72(4): 330-334.

  • Canfield MA, Mai CT, Want Y, et al. The association between race/ethnicity and major birth defects in the United States, 1999-2007. Am J Public Health. 2014; 104(9): e14-e23.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Folate status in women of childbearing age-United States, 1999. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2000; 49(42):962-965.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Preventing Neural Tube Birth Defects: A Prevention Model and Resource Guide Sixth Printing. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/orders/pdfs/09_202063-A_Nash_Neural%20Tube%20BD%20Guide%20FINAL508.pdf Published April 2009. Accessed February 12, 2017.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Spina bifida and anencephaly before and after folic acid mandate – United States, 1995-1996 and 1999-2000. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2004; 53(17):362-365.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Updated estimates of neural tube defects prevented by mandatory folic acid fortification – United States, 1995-2011. MMWR Morb Mort Wkly Rep. 2015; 64(1): 1-5.
  • Chitayat D, Matsui D, Amitai Y, et al. Folic acid supplementation for pregnant women and those planning for pregnancy: 2015 update. J Clin Pharmacol. 2016; 56(2): 170-175.
  • Florida Department of Health. Florida Birth Defects Registry. Neural Tube Defects. http://www.fbdr.org/Birth_Defects/neuraltubedefects.html. Accessed January 25, 2016.
  • Food and Drug Administration (FDA). FDA approves folic acid fortification of corn masa flour. http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm496104.htm. Published April 14, 2016. Accessed December 30, 2016.
  • Halsted CH, Medici V, Esfandiari F. Influence of alcohol on folate status and methionine metabolism in relation to alcoholic liver disease. In: Bailey LB, editor. Folate in health and disease. 2nd ed. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group; 2010: 429–448.
  • Yazdy MM, Mitchell AA, Tinker SC, Parker SE, Werler MM. Periconceptional use of opioids and the risk of neural tube defects. Obstet Gynecol. 2013; 122(4): 838-844.

Health professional


Health professionals

OB/GYN